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Iraqi Journal for Electrical and Electronic Engineering ISSN 1814-5892 (Print), ISSN 2078-6069 (Online) is a peer-reviewed Journal that its objective is to discuss, through papers, new theoretical developments and techniques in the field of Electrical and Electronic Engineering and their application to real world problems. The journal is the official journal of the ministry of higher education in this field.
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Journal Information

Publisher: Basrah University

Email:  info@ijeee.edu.iq

Editor-in-chief: Prof. Dr.Abdulkareem Swadi Abdullah

Editor-in-chief: Professor Dr. Abduladhem A.Ali

Print ISSN: 1814-5892

Online ISSN: 2078-6069

Analog Programmable Circuit Implementation for Memristor

Saif Muneam Ramadhan; Fadhil Rahma Tahir

Iraqi Journal for Electrical And Electronic Engineering, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 1-9
DOI: 10.33762/eeej.2018.144336

In this work, a new flux controlled memristor circuit is presented. It provides a tool to emulate
the pinched hysteresis loop.When driven the memristor by a bipolar periodic signal, the memristor exhibits
a “pinched hysteresis loop” in the voltage-current plane and starting from some critical frequency, the
hysteresis lobe area decreases monotonically as the excitation frequency increases, the pinched hysteresis
loop shrinks to a single-valued function when the frequency tends to infinity. The design model numerically
simulated and the physical implementation is achieved by using a field programmable analog array
(FPAA). The circuit can be modeled and implemented with a changeable nonlinear function blocks and
fixed main system blocks. The simplicity of the specific design method makes this proposed model be a very
engaging option for the design of the memristor.

Design and Implementation of Locations Matching Algorithm for Multi-Object Recognition and Localization

Mofeed T. Rashid; Wael H. Zayer; Abdulmuttalib T. Rashid

Iraqi Journal for Electrical And Electronic Engineering, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 10-21
DOI: 10.33762/eeej.2018.144337

A new algorithm for multi-object recognition and localization is introduced in this paper. This algorithm
deals with objects which have different reflectivity factors and distinguish color with respect to the other objects.
Two beacons scan multi-color objects using long distance IR sensors to estimate their absolute locations. These two
beacon nodes are placed at two corners of the environment. The recognition of these objects is estimated by
matching the locations of each object with respect to the two beacons. A look-up table contains the distances
information about different color objects is used to convert the reading of the long distance IR sensor from voltage to
distance units. The locations of invisible objects are computed by using absolute locations of invisible objects
method. The performance of introduced algorithm is tested with several experimental scenarios that implemented on
color objects.

The Effect of Using Projective Cameras on View- Independent Gait Recognition Performance

Fatimah S. Abdulsattar

Iraqi Journal for Electrical And Electronic Engineering, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 22-29
DOI: 10.33762/eeej.2018.144338

Gait as a biometric can be used to identify subjects at a distance and thus it receives great attention from the
research community for security and surveillance applications. One of the challenges that affects gait recognition
performance is view variation. Much work has been done to tackle this challenge. However, the majority of the work
assumes that gait silhouettes are captured by affine cameras where only the height of silhouettes changes and the
difference in viewing angle of silhouettes in one gait cycle is relatively small. In this paper, we analyze the variation
in gait recognition performance when using silhouettes from projective cameras and from affine cameras with
different distance from the center of a walking path. This is done by using 3D models of walking people in the gallery
set and 2D gait silhouettes from independent (single) cameras in the probe set. Different factors that affect matching
3D human models with 2D gait silhouettes from single cameras for view-independent gait recognition are analyzed.
In all experiments, we use 258 multi-view sequences belong to 46 subjects from Multi-View Soton gait dataset.
We evaluate the matching performance for 12 different views using Gait Energy Image (GEI) as gait features.
Then, we analyze the effect of using different camera configurations for 3D model reconstruction, the GEI from
cameras with different settings, the upper and lower body parts for recognition and different GEI resolutions. The
results illustrate that low recognition performance is achieved when using gait silhouettes from affine cameras while
lower recognition performance is obtained when using gait silhouettes from projective cameras.

Automated Power Factor Correction for Smart Home

Basil H.Jasim; Bilal Naji Alhasnawi

Iraqi Journal for Electrical And Electronic Engineering, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 30-40
DOI: 10.33762/eeej.2018.144339

In the current scenario, power factor has become an important concern in all industries. Poor power factor
gives rise to many problems which result in financial loss of industries and also for the commercial users. The main
concern of this work is to improve the usage of real power with respect to reactive power hence improving the power
factor. Here we have used the technique of relay switching method with a capacitor so that any drop in power factor
can be sensed by the controller and switch the capacitor as required. This will not only help to improve power factor
but also demand of electricity supply on utility side will be reduced. The Significance of this work is to build an
APFC (Automatic Power Factor Correction) Unit. The APFC appliance calculates the reactive power (KVAR)
expended by a system’s load and compensates the lagging PF (power factor) utilizing capacitances from capacitor
banks.

Control of Robot Directions Based on Online Hand Gestures

Ayam M. Abbass; Mohammed A.Tawfeeq

Iraqi Journal for Electrical And Electronic Engineering, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 41-50
DOI: 10.33762/eeej.2018.144340

The evolution of wireless communication technology increases human machine interaction
capabilities especially in controlling robotic systems. This paper introduces an effective wireless system in
controlling the directions of a wheeled robot based on online hand gestures. The hand gesture images are
captured and processed to be recognized and classified using neural network (NN). The NN is trained using
extracted features to distinguish five different gestures; accordingly it produces five different signals. These
signals are transmitted to control the directions of the cited robot. The main contribution of this paper is, the
technique used to recognize hand gestures is required only two features, these features can be extracted in very
short time using quite easy methodology, and this makes the proposed technique so suitable for online
interaction. In this methodology, the preprocessed image is partitioned column-wise into two half segments;
from each half one feature is extracted. This feature represents the ratio of white to black pixels of the segment
histogram. The NN showed very high accuracy in recognizing all of the proposed gesture classes. The NN output
signals are transmitted to the robot microcontroller wirelessly using Bluetooth. Accordingly the microcontroller
guides the robot to the desired direction. The overall system showed high performance in controlling the robot
movement directions.

Saturation Throughput and Delay Performance Evaluation of the IEEE 802.11g/n for a Wireless Lossy Channel

Salah A. Alabady

Iraqi Journal for Electrical And Electronic Engineering, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 51-64
DOI: 10.33762/eeej.2018.144341

Non-ideal channel conditions degrade the performance of wireless networks due to the occurrence of frame
errors. Most of the well-known works compute the saturation throughput and packet delay for the IEEE 802.11
Distributed Coordination Function (DCF) protocol with the assumption that transmission is carried out via an ideal
channel (i.e., no channel bit errors or hidden stations), and/or the errors exist only in data packets. Besides, there are
no considerations for transmission errors in the control frames (i.e., Request to Send (RTS), Clear to Send (CTS), and
Acknowledgement (ACK)). Considering the transmission errors in the control frames adds complexity to the existing
analysis for the wireless networks. In this paper, an analytical model to evaluate the Medium Access Control (MAC)
layer saturation throughput and packet delay of the IEEE 802.11g and IEEE 802.11n protocols in the presence of both
collisions and transmission errors in a non-ideal wireless channel is provided. The derived analytical expressions
reveal that the saturation throughput and packet delay are affected by the network size (n), packet size, minimum
backoff window size (Wmin), maximum backoff stage (m), and bit error rate (BER). These results are important for
protocol optimization and network planning in wireless networks.

Short Circuit Faults Identification and Localization in IEEE 34 Nodes Distribution Feeder Based on the Theory of Wavelets

Sara J. Authafa

Iraqi Journal for Electrical And Electronic Engineering, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 65-79
DOI: 10.33762/eeej.2018.144342

In this paper a radial distribution feeder protection scheme against short circuit faults is introduced. It is based on
utilizing the substation measured current signals in detecting faults and obtaining useful information about their types and
locations. In order to facilitate important measurement signals features extraction such that better diagnosis of faults can be
achieved, the discrete wavelet transform is exploited. The captured features are then utilized in detecting, identifying the
faulted phases (fault type), and fault location. In case of a fault occurrence, the detection scheme will make a decision to trip
out a circuit breaker residing at the feeder mains. This decision is made based on a criteria that is set to distinguish between
the various system states in a reliable and accurate manner. After that, the fault type and location are predicted making use
of the cascade forward neural networks learning and generalization capabilities. Useful information about the fault location
can be obtained provided that the fault distance from source, as well as whether it resides on the main feeder or on one of the
laterals can be predicted. By testing the functionality of the proposed scheme, it is found that the detection of faults is done
fastly and reliably from the view point of power system protection relaying requirements. It also proves to overcome the
complexities provided by the feeder structure to the accuracy of the identification process of fault types and locations. All the
simulations and analysis are performed utilizing MATLAB R2016b version software package.

Digital Image Encryption using AES and Random Number Generator

Noor Kareem Jumaa

Iraqi Journal for Electrical And Electronic Engineering, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 80-89
DOI: 10.33762/eeej.2018.144343

In nowadays world of rapid evolution of exchanging digital data, data protection is required to protect data from the
unauthorized parities. With the widely use of digital images of diverse fields, it is important to conserve the confidentiality of
image’s data form any without authorization access. In this paper the problem of secret key exchanging with the communicated
parities had been solved by using a random number generator which based on Linear Feedback Shift Register (LFSR). The
encryption/decryption is based on Advance Encryption Standard (AES) with the random key generator. Also, in this paper, both
grayscale and colored RGB images have been encrypted/decrypted. The functionality of proposed system of this paper, is
concerned with three features: First feature, is dealing with the obstetrics of truly random and secure encryption key while the
second one deals with encrypting the plain or secret image using AES algorithm and the third concern is the extraction the
original image by decrypting the encrypted or cipher one. “Mean Square Error (MSE)”, “Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR)”,
“Normalized Correlation (NK)”, and “Normalized Absolute Error (NAE)” are measured for both (original-encrypted) images
and (original-decrypted) image in order to study and analyze the performance of the proposed system according to image quality
features.

STATCOM for Dynamic Performance Optimization of Grid Connected Wind Power System

Radwan Taha Al-Bouthigy; Jaber Ibrehaim AL-Sadey; Ahmed AbdElmalek AbdElHafez

Iraqi Journal for Electrical And Electronic Engineering, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 67-75
DOI: 10.33762/eeej.2013.81790

Large disturbances in an induction generator-based wind system necessitate rapid compensation for the reactive power. This article addresses the application of Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM) in optimizing the performance of grid connected wind power system. The functionality of the static synchronous compensator in maintaining system stability and reliability during/post diverse severe disturbances is thoroughly investigated. A design procedure for STATCOM, particularly the capacitor in the DC side was advised.

Real Time Sticky Bomb Detection System Based on Compass Device and Arduino Board

Sameer Hameed Majeed; Noor Kareem Jumaa; Auday A.H. Mohamad

Iraqi Journal for Electrical And Electronic Engineering, Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 46-52
DOI: 10.33762/eeej.2017.128786

This paper presents a new strategy of sticky bomb detection. The detection strategy is based on measuring the magnetic field around the targeted car using compass device. A compass measure the earth gravitation of the car as (x,y,z) coordination , a threshold value of magnetic fields around the targeted car are recorded. If a difference is detected with any (x,y,z) coordination, an alert SMS message is sent to the car's owner. The detection system presented in this paper has been implemented based on Arduino board. The alarm signal is a Short Message Service (SMS) through Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) module. The proposed method can gives the people of unstable countries a chance to discover whether their cars have been trapped with an IED bomb or their car still safe.

Reliability & Sensitivity Analysis of IKR Regional power Network

Asso Raouf Majeed

Iraqi Journal for Electrical And Electronic Engineering, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 163-168
DOI: 10.33762/eeej.2011.50338

This paper presents a developed algorithm for
reliability sensitivity analysis of engineering networks. .
Reliability Modeling is proposed for the Iraqi Kurdistan
Regional Power Network (IKRPN) using Symbolic
Reliability function of the model. The written Pascal code for
the developed algorithm finds efficiently path sets and cut sets
of the model. Reliability and Unreliability indices are found.
The sensitivity of these indices are found with respect to the
variation of the network’s elements reliabilities

Control Strategy for Three-Phase PWM Boost Rectifier Operating Under Different SupplyVoltage Conditions

Turki Kahawish Hassan; Muntadher Kadhem Abdullah

Iraqi Journal for Electrical And Electronic Engineering, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 83-100
DOI: 10.33762/eeej.2015.102717

In this paper, a proposed control strategy is presented to improve the performance of the
pulse width modulation (PWM) boost type rectifier when operating under different supply voltage
conditions (balanced, unbalanced, and distorted three-phase supply voltages). The proposed control
strategy is divided into two parts, the first part is voltage controller and the second part is current
controller. In the voltage controller, Repetitive Controller (RC) is used to reduce the even order
harmonics in the regulated output dc voltage so small output capacitor (filter) is used instead of large
capacitor. RC also reduces the even order harmonics which appear in the reflected dc current (IMAX),
this leads to reduce the odd order harmonics which appear in the input currents. While in the current
controller, Enhanced Phase Locked Loop (EPLL) technique is used to obtain sinusoidal and balanced
three phases, to construct the reference currents, which are in phase with the fundamental supply
voltages. Therefore, the supply-side power factor is kept close to unity. A proportional controller is
used to give excellent tracking between the line and the reference currents. The complete system with
the proposed control strategy are simulated using Matlab/Simulink. The results for the complete
system using repetitive voltage controller are obtained and compared to the results of the system with
the conventional voltage controller (Proportional-Integral (PI) controller connected in series with a
Low Pass Filter (LPF)). The results with the repetitive controller show better response and stable
operation in the steady state under different input voltage conditions, as well as in the transient
response under changing the load condition.

Reactive Power Optimization with Chaotic Firefly Algorithm and Particle Swarm Optimization in A Distribution Subsystem Network

Hamza Yap; Nurettin; etinkaya

Iraqi Journal for Electrical And Electronic Engineering, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 71-78
DOI: 10.33762/eeej.2016.110676

In this paper the minimization of power losses in a real distribution network have been described by solving reactive
power optimization problem. The optimization has been performed and tested on Konya Eregli Distribution Network in Turkey,
a section of Turkish electric distribution network managed by MEDAŞ (Meram Electricity Distribution Corporation). The
network contains about 9 feeders, 1323 buses (including 0.4 kV, 15.8 kV and 31.5 kV buses) and 1311 transformers. This paper
prefers a new Chaotic Firefly Algorithm (CFA) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) for the power loss minimization in a
real distribution network. The reactive power optimization problem is concluded with minimum active power losses by the
optimal value of reactive power. The formulation contains detailed constraints including voltage limits and capacitor boundary.
The simulation has been carried out with real data and results have been compared with Simulated Annealing (SA), standard
Genetic Algorithm (SGA) and standard Firefly Algorithm (FA). The proposed method has been found the better results than
the other algorithms.

A k-Nearest Neighbor Based Algorithm for Human Arm Movements Recognition Using EMG Signals

Mohammed Z. Al-Faiz; Abduladhem A.Ali; Abbas H.Miry

Iraqi Journal for Electrical And Electronic Engineering, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 158-166
DOI: 10.33762/eeej.2010.54888

In a human–robot interface, the prediction of
motion, which is based on context information of a task,
has the potential to improve the robustness and reliability
of motion classification to control human-assisting
manipulators. The electromyography (EMG) signals can
be used as a control source of artificial arm after it has
been processed. The objective of this work is to achieve
better classification with multiple parameters using KNearest
Neighbor for different movements of a prosthetic
arm. A K- Nearest Neighbor (K-NN) rule is one of the
simplest and the most important methods in pattern
recognition. The proposed structure is simulated using
MATLAB Ver. R2009a, and satisfied results are obtained
by comparing with conventional method of recognition
using Artificial Neural Network(ANN), that explains the
ability of the proposed structure to recognize the
movements of human arm based EMG signals. Results
show the proposed technique achieved a uniformly good
performance with respect to ANN in term of time which is
important in recognition systems, better accuracy in
recognition when applied to lower SNR signal .

Design & Implementation of a Mobile Phone Charging System Based on Solar Energy Harvesting

Qutaiba I. Ali

Iraqi Journal for Electrical And Electronic Engineering, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 69-72
DOI: 10.33762/eeej.2011.42004

The ability to harvest energy from the environment
represents an important technology area that promises to
eliminate wires and battery maintenance for many important
applications and permits deploying self powered devices. This
paper suggests the use of a solar energy harvester to charge
mobile phone devices. In the beginning, a comprehensive
overview to the energy harvesting concept and technologies is
presented. Then the design procedure of our energy harvester
was detailed. Our prototype solar energy harvester proves its
efficiency to charge the aimed batteries under sunlight or an
indoor artificial light

Online Genetic-Fuzzy Forward Controller for a Robot Arm

Abduladeem A. Ali; Amal J. Kudaer

Iraqi Journal for Electrical And Electronic Engineering, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 60-73
DOI: 10.33762/eeej.2009.54941

The robot is a repeated task plant. The control of such a plant under parameter
variations and load disturbances is one of the important problems. The aim of this work is to
design Genetic-Fuzzy controller suitable for online applications to control single link rigid robot
arm plant. The genetic-fuzzy online controller (forward controller) contains two parts, an
identifier part and model reference controller part. The identification is based on forward
identification technique. The proposed controller it tested in normal and load disturbance
conditions

Determination of Residential Electrical Load Components In Iraqi North Region

her S. Al- Fahadi; Mudhafar A. Al-Nama; Majid. S. Al-Hafidh

Iraqi Journal for Electrical And Electronic Engineering, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 0-0
DOI: 10.33762/eeej.2017.135278

The residential electrical load in the city of Mosul as well as in most of cities in Iraq, is the major problem for the administration of electricity distribution. Since this kind of load is increasing drastically compared with other loads such as industrial, agricultural tourism and others which are declining for the last two decades due to unstable condition of the countyThe residential electrical load components must be determined to solve the problems resulting from the significant increase in this load. This research aims to conduct a field survey to find out and identify the components of the residential electrical load ratios and qualitative change in the months of the year. The survey was conducted in the city of Mosul in northern Iraq. The results were analyzed, and a number of recommendations were given to rationalize consumption. .

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